As per the slr investopedia guidelines, banks/financial institutions are required to transfer the benefit of interest rate cuts to consumers as soon as possible. As per the RBI guidelines, banks/financial institutions are required to transfer the benefit of interest rate cuts to consumers as fast as possible. An increase/decrease in the repo rates can result in banks and financial institutions revising their MCLR proportionately. The MCLR is the internal reference rate that helps banks find out the interest they can levy on loans. This means that banks are required to maintain a minimum of 18% of their Net Demand and Time Liabilities in the form of liquid assets.

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Its primary responsibility is to create and operate a monetary policy. The monetary policy helps in administering the flow and supply of money for the purpose of attaining good growth in the economy. This is done by monitoring and managing various interest rates. While not as risky as stocks on average, bond prices do fluctuate and can go down. If interest rates rise, for example, the price of even a highly rated bond will decrease. The sensitivity of a bond’s price to interest rate changes is known as its duration.


However, the RBI has the authority to change the SLR limit as needed, based on the prevailing economic conditions. SLR is a percentage of Net Time and Demand Liabilities kept by the bank in the form of liquid assets. It is used to maintain the stability of banks by limiting the credit facility offered to its customers. The banks hold more than the required SLR and the purpose of maintaining the SLR is to hold a certain amount of money in the form of liquid assets, so as to fulfill the demand of the depositors when arises.

Suppose a rival https://1investing.in/ of SBI, hires some people to spread rumors against SBI. Cash Reserve Ratio ensures that a part of the bank’s deposit is with the Central Bank and is hence, secure. The Reserve Bank of India , is responsible for deciding the SLR to be maintained by other banks. To know more about online trading at low rates visit best share broker in India. So to meet both CRR and SLR requirements, bank have to earmark Rs 260 (Rs 60 + Rs 200).

Cash Reserve Ratio is one of the main components of the RBI’s monetary policy, which is used to regulate the money supply, level of inflation and liquidity in the country. The higher the CRR, the lower is the liquidity with the banks and vice-versa. During high levels of inflation, attempts are made to reduce the flow of money in the economy. Liquid assets include cash, gold, and government securities held by the bank.

To control credit expansion:

However, financial leverage based on its solvency ratios appears quite high. Debt exceeds equity by more than three times, while two-thirds of assets have been financed by debt. Note as well that close to half of non-current assets consist of intangible assets . As a result, the ratio of debt to tangible assets—calculated as ($50/$55)—is 0.91, which means that over 90% of tangible assets (plant, equipment, and inventories, etc.) have been financed by borrowing.

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This characteristic makes government bonds attractive to conservative investors. Because sovereign debt is backed by a government that can tax its citizens or print money to cover the payments, these are considered the least risky type of bonds, in general. Junk bonds are bonds that carry a higher risk of default than most bonds issued by corporations and governments.

Effect of Change in Rates

Many bond indices are members of broader indices that measure the performances of global bond portfolios. Bonds tend to be less volatile and more conservative than stock investments, but they also have lower expected returns. Bonds are either issued on the primary market, which rolls out new debt, or traded on the secondary market, in which investors may purchase existing debt via brokers or other third parties.

The VOC was the first company in history to widely issue bonds and shares of stock to the general public. National governments generally use the proceeds from bonds to finance infrastructural improvements and pay down debts. By changing the level of SLR, the Reserve Bank of India can increase or decrease bank credit expansion. Current Assets is an account on a balance sheet that represents the value of all assets that could be converted into cash within one year. Investopedia requires writers to use primary sources to support their work.

When there is a rise in the SLR, a bank is also restricted in terms of its leverage position. Hence, this rise in the SLR will enable a bank to release more funds into the economy and in turn, contribute towards the overall development of the economy. All banks must compulsorily provide a report or an update to the Reserve Bank of India every alternate Friday regarding their SLR status.

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Reverse repo rate is the rate of interest offered by RBI, when banks deposit their surplus funds with the RBI for short periods. When banks have surplus funds but have no lending investment options, they deposit such funds with RBI. It simply means Repo Rate is the rate at which RBI lends money to commercial banks against the pledge of government securities whenever the banks are in need of funds to meet their day-to-day obligations. The minimum amount of reserves that a bank must hold on to is referred to as the reserve requirement, and is sometimes used synonymously with the reserve ratio.

Each banking institution is given customised instructions regarding the maintenance of SLR by the RBI. The RBI also offers regular updates regarding the classification of assets that will be treated as liquid assets under SLR. These are bonds issued by governments and companies located in emerging market economies, providing much greater growth opportunities, but also greater risk, than domestic or developed bond markets. Mortgage-backed security issues, which consist of pooled mortgages on real estate properties, are locked in by the pledge of particular collateralized assets. The investor who buys a mortgage-backed security is essentially lending money to homebuyers through their lenders.


If a bank fails to meet the Statutory Liquidity Ratio requisite, they are charged a penalty by the apex body. CRR is an effective tool which governs the banks lending capacity, as well as control the supply of money in the economy. Typically, it is in the form of the cash available in bank vault physically or deposits made with the apex bank.

  • The Central Bank formulates and administers its monetary policy, and acts to influence the cost and availability of money.
  • It also motivates bank staff to perform better every month and encourages them to take up new initiatives to enhance and improve the operations of each bank branch.
  • The statutory liquidity ratio is regularly monitored so that banks have a higher leverage and a better influencing aspect.

A reduction in the SLR rate according to the prevailing circumstances in the nation and across the world will assist in attaining financial stability. Financial stability is highly important in today’s ever-changing financial environment that sees constant change and fluctuations. As on 25 September 2017, the SLR rate in the country was 19.5%. Today, bonds are issued in developing nations and by corporations located in these countries all over the world, including from Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. The general bond market can be segmented into the following bond classifications, each with its own set of attributes.

Besides his extensive derivative trading expertise, Adam is an expert in economics and behavioral finance. Adam received his master’s in economics from The New School for Social Research and his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in sociology. He is a CFA charterholder as well as holding FINRA Series 7, 55 & 63 licenses. He currently researches and teaches economic sociology and the social studies of finance at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.

Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR)

The RBI can increase the SLR to control inflation, suck liquidity out of the market, to tighten the measure to safeguard the customers’ money. In a growing economy banks would like to invest in stock market, not in government securities or gold as the latter would yield less returns. One more reason is long term government securities are sensitive to interest rate changes.

Cash Reserve Ratio is the percentage of the deposit that a bank has to keep with the RBI. Liquidity refers to the ability to cover short-term obligations. Solvency, on the other hand, is a firm’s ability to pay long-term obligations.

Monetary Policy: How Central Banks Regulate The Economy – Forbes

Monetary Policy: How Central Banks Regulate The Economy.

Posted: Mon, 02 Jan 2023 08:00:00 GMT [source]

SLR ensures that there is solvency in commercial banks and assures that banks invest in government securities. Every bank must have a particular portion of their Net Demand and Time Liabilities in the form of cash, gold, or other liquid assets by the end of the day. The ratio of these liquid assets to the demand and time liabilities is called the Statutory Liquidity Ratio . The Reserve Bank of India has the authority to increase this ratio by up to 40%.

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If the Fed doesn’t extent the SLR, it will have a large impact on the bond market, stress is high. The daily average surplus of 180 billion rupees in the last three weeks is sharply lower than the 860 billion rupees in the first three weeks of 2022. RBI mainly uses following tools to control this liquidity / money supply in the banking system.

Learn about liquidity and credit, and understand their importance in money management. With CRR the central bank aims at maintaining monetary stability in the country, whereas, SLR governs the bank’s leverage for credit extension. So, a change in SLR determines the bank’s leverage position to pump or pour money into the economy. The rate of SLR is decided by the Central bank, i.e. the Reserve Bank of India so as to control the expansion of bank credit. This means that SLR can increase or decrease the expansion of bank credit just by changing the rates of Statutory Liquidity Ratio.

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